Diagnosing Functional Dyspepsia
This inconsistent effectiveness makes the testing of drugs particularly difficult. Indeed, it can easily result in drug trials that demonstrate no efficacy (usefulness) when, in fact, the drug is helping a subgroup of patients. Research in indigestion is difficult. Indigestion is defined by subjective symptoms (such as pain) rather than objective signs (for example, the presence of an ulcer).
There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation.
If you experience pain, bloating, and/or nausea in your stomach after scarfing down a large meal on a regular basis, it’s probably dyspepsia (a.k.a. indigestion). Like acid reflux, this can also be treated with OTC acid-blocking meds, says Kisiel.
Medication is one of the first treatments for dysphagia related to reflux. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medications that reduce stomach acids and relieve symptoms of GERD. They can also help heal erosion of the esophagus caused by reflux. Dysphagia is when you have difficulty swallowing.
Examples of potential DDIs include pharmacological agents, such as warfarin, ketoconazole, phenytoin, diazepam, digoxin, methotrexate, tacrolimus, and cilostazol. Indigestion is very normal and most people will experience it at some point. You could suffer a couple of times a year or feel symptoms regularly. The discomfort or pain of indigestion can range from mild to severe and can last for a few minutes to several unhappy hours. Sometimes a germ called Helicobacter pylori can make indigestion worse.
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)An electrocardiogram is known by the acronyms “ECG” or “EKG” more commonly used for this non-invasive procedure to record the electrical activity of the heart. An EKG generally is performed as part of a routine physical exam, part of a cardiac exercise stress test, or part of the evaluation of symptoms. Symptoms evaluated include palpitations, fainting, shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, or chest pain. these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers.
Subjective symptoms are more unreliable than objective signs in identifying homogenous groups of patients. As a result, groups of patients with indigestion who are undergoing treatment are likely to contain some patients who do not have indigestion, which may dilute (negatively affect) the results of the treatment. Moreover, the results of treatment must be evaluated on the basis of subjective responses (such as improvement of pain). In addition to being more unreliable, subjective responses are more difficult to measure than objective responses (for example, healing of an ulcer). Intolerance to lactose (the sugar in milk) often is blamed for indigestion.
Indigestion that isn’t caused by an underlying disease may be eased with lifestyle changes and medication. Symptoms similar to indigestion may be caused by heart attacks. If indigestion is unusual, accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain, or pain radiating to the jaw, neck, or arm, seek medical attention immediately. Because indigestion is a symptom rather than a disease, treatment usually depends upon the underlying condition causing the indigestion.
“Weight loss and quitting smoking will help most,” says Dr. Staller. It is always important to keep track of what you eat, especially when dining out for a meal. Symptoms of food poisoning can often kick in within hours of eating contaminated food. These often include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Current guidelines recommend the use of acid-suppressive therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy as the first-line approach to GERD treatment.(7-9) PPIs suppress gastric acid secretion and have a profound effect on oesophageal mucosal healing.(10) Despite the high efficacy of PPIs, up to 30% of patients continue to experience GERD-like symptoms even when adequately dosed.(7,8) Patients who do not respond to PPIs or have any alarm symptoms (e.g. dysphagia, odynophagia, weight loss, vomiting and/or abdominal pain) require further evaluation.