The Emotional Reactions of School Bullies and their Victims
We review and present new methods for bias correcting sea surface temperatures and sea-ice concentration coming from such models in order to use them as boundary conditions for atmospheric-only GCMs. For sea ice, we propose a new analogue method which allows us to reproduce more physically consistent future bias-corrected sea-ice concentration maps. and its components. The effect of different meteorological parameters has been explored on the concentration of PM components in the case of changes due to regional climate. A cumulative impact study on the three aforementioned drivers has also been included.
Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols are able to absorb solar radiation and they continue to contribute some of the largest uncertainties in projected climate change. One important detail is how the chemical species are arranged inside each particle, i.e. the knowledge of their mixing state.
For the late 21st century, we use original and bias-corrected sea surface conditions from RCP8.5 climate projections. We assess the impact of using direct or bias-corrected SSC for the evolution of Antarctic climate and surface mass balance.
Population-based surveillance study of data collected from media databases, state and local agencies, and police and school officials for July 1, 1994, through June 30, 1999. A case was defined as a homicide, suicide, legal intervention, or unintentional firearm-related death of a student or nonstudent in which the fatal injury occurred (1) on the campus of a public or private elementary or secondary school, (2) while the victim was on the way to or from such a school, or (3) while the victim was attending or traveling to or from an official school-sponsored event. The recent media hype over school shootings has led to demands for methods of identifying school shooters before they act.
It is well-documented that obese children and adolescents tend to experience a variety of negative physical and psychological health consequences. Despite the association between obesity and physical and psychological well-being, few studies have examined the role of off-line and on-line forms of bullying victimization in this link. The main objective of the current study is to investigate the direct and mediating effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization in explaining the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and physical/psychological distress.
The number concentration of ice crystals (N i ) is a key cloud property that remains very uncertain due to difficulties in determining it using satellites. This lack of global observational constraints limits our ability to constrain this property in models responsible for predicting future climate. This pair of papers fills this gap by showing and analyzing the first rigorously evaluated global climatology of N i , leading to new information shedding light on the processes that control high clouds. CMIP5 historical protocol). The evaluation specifically focuses on how the model simulates the mean climate state, as well as the most important large-scale climate patterns.
There were far more boys than girls in the bully-victim group. Bully-victims resembled victims only (pure victims) in terms of age-trends and bullies only (pure bullies) in terms of sex composition. The overlap of bully-victims with the total victim group was fairly small (10-20%) in all grades. In primary grades, bully-victims constituted about 30-50% of the total bully group, whereas in higher grades these proportions were considerably lower.
No significant interactions with gender or age were seen, but the association with irritability, headache and backache tended to be strongest for boys, whereas the association with nervousness and sleeplessness was strongest for girls. Increasing exposure to bullying was associated with a highly significant increase in number of symptoms. The strong and consistent associations with different symptoms and the dose-response relationship suggest a causal relationship. Conclusions. It is important to study only bullies, only victims and bully/victims, as well as bullies and victims in general.
Lakes interact with their surroundings through flux exchange at their bottom sediments and with the atmosphere at the surface, and these linkages must be represented in climate and weather prediction models in order to completely elucidate the role of lakes in the climate system. Here schemes for the inclusion of wind sheltering and sediment heat flux simple enough to be included in any 1-D lake model are presented, along with example simulations of the Canadian Small Lake Model. Due to computational limitations, climate models cannot fully resolve the laws of physics below a certain scale – a large source of errors and uncertainty. Stochastic schemes aim to account for this by randomly sampling the possible unresolved states.
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042-2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline. Effects of aerosols on clouds are important for climate studies but are among the largest uncertainties in climate projections.
It was hypothesized that a history of violent victimization by adults leads to emotion dysregulation that results in a dual pattern of aggressive behavior and victimization by peers. Interviews with mothers of 198 5-year-old boys assessed preschool home environments. Four to 5 years later, aggressive behavior and peer victimization were assessed in the school classroom. The early experiences of 16 aggressive victims were contrasted with those of 21 passive (nonaggressive) victims, 33 nonvictimized aggressors, and 128 normative boys.
Bullies tended to be male and to have low pro-social behaviour, but these were largely characteristics of children who were only bullies. Victims tended to be female and to have low self-esteem, but these were largely characteristics of children who were only victims.
The number of children involved in bullying declined somewhat during the 4-year follow-up period, and a substantial number of children changed status, bullies became bully-victims for example. Nearly half the children involved in bullying in Study 2 had been involved 4 years earlier. Those children who were bully-victims in Study 1 were most commonly found to be still involved in bullying 4 years later. At both time points, children involved in bullying were found to have significantly more psychiatric symptoms than other children, and to be psychologically disturbed.
Global Membership at a Glance
Results show that ozone levels are largely driven by long-range transport over both continents while other pollutants such as carbon monoxide or aerosols are mainly controlled by domestic sources. Use of multi-model ensembles can help to reduce the uncertainties in individual models. This study investigates the value of assimilating coarse-resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data into high-resolution land surface models for improving soil moisture and runoff modeling. The soil moisture estimates in this study, with complete spatio-temporal coverage and improved spatial resolution from the assimilation, offer a new reanalysis product for the monitoring of surface soil water content and other hydrological fluxes at 3â€‰km resolution over Europe. Oceanic surface conditions coming from coupled ocean-atmosphere global climate models bear considerable biases over the historical climate.